Post #7 The Establishment of an Ideal Educational Community: Embedding Moral Education into School

Last week, I acknowledged the responsibility of parents in the moral development, and made three suggestions for parents to better educate moral reasoning. Fundamentally however, it is notable that not every pair of parents has a proper understanding of right conducts themselves, and the composition of moral education is complex which requires other parties, such as school and religion to be involved (Oladipo, 2009). This got me thinking: what is the importance of moral education in school and how to implement it consummately?

McCambridge (2004) proposed moral education, critical thinking and imagination (creativity) as the determinants of an ideal educational community. He believed that moral education not only restricts individuals to inhibit crime commitments, that individuals being truthful are also necessary to the accretion of science, to admit the misrepresentation of evidence and re-investigate with a real passion. Besides, an understanding to respect others helps promoting a healthy mental status and reduces social problems; in other words, such respect preclude bullying, deceiving and various issues caused from irreverence to life (McCambridge, 2004; Oladipo, 2009).

Since the importance of critical thinking is evidential in academic and life success (Butler, 2012), starting to establish a deeper form of thinking at a younger age would increase the likelihood of success; whereas moral education can be viewed as an aid in fostering it. Currently, there is a low opportunity for students to develop critical thinking skills under the teaching curriculum of formal education, because its main aim (i.e. Chinese, English, Mathematics, and History) is to provide a wide fact sheet on basic knowledge as to build up a solid foundation for higher education.

Reminiscing the Chinese Literature, I found myself incompetent to remember or apply any knowledge I learnt from the lessons; laughably the mere ancient language I recall is “bird” in Cantonese because it was used as a swearword in the old times.”

Nevertheless, an appropriate assessment in moral education provides opportunities to practice critical thinking skills as it requires more flexibility and individuality while understanding and accepting different transmitted values (family and public) of right conducts. Any Evidences?

Before suggesting a change on moral education, it is central to point out the problems in the current teaching curriculum. A study in Jiangxi (a province of China) indicated that school moral education has two main problems: examination-based assessment and content-based teaching strategy (Liang, n.d.). The way the moral education is taught generally reflects the perceived educational objectives by educators, which is indoctrination, without any attempts to increase engagement in learning. The heavy examination-based evaluations also influence the teachers’ priority of thinking in education, since their main concern is to ensure students achieving a good grade in the examination and conform to the expectation of top management and parents (Qualifications and Curriculum Authority, 2000).

It is important for teachers to meet students’ affective needs for successful moral reasoning to occur (Power, 2007), because moral education requires students not only to have a high comprehension of knowledge but as well as acceptance to others’ moral value. Suggestions that I would make for improving teacher quality are:

  1. Understand the multi-roles of teacher – Alter their viewpoint on the single role of teacher as being an instructor but as well as a co-learner with their students, mostly because students can be active creators of knowledge (i.e. technology use) that teachers never know (Holbrook et al, 2012). In such way, this new role facilitates teachers to enhance self-competency when they seek challenges in co-learning with students (Fischer & Rustemeyer, 2007), and also promote their intrinsic motivation (Bieg, Backes & Mittag, 2011).
  2. Learn the psychological knowledge base – Help them to understand the mental and physical characteristics and study status of students, to increase the sensitivity to students’ need; arranging psychological experts to give lectures for teachers.
  3. Update the notions of moral education – A regular update (i.e. 1-2 years period) of notions in moral education is necessary, since the ideal right conducts in each society change across time and politic consideration (Dorn, 2012).  For example, corporal punishment is prevalent during kindergarten and primary school (Kilimci, 2009) whereas it is given that school corporal punishment is not likely to enhance moral character or awareness of respect (Society for Adolescent Medicine, 2003). Therefore, it is pivotal to prohibit wrong notions from happening and research into alternatives for change (National Association of School Psychologists, 2006).

The use of imagination is deemed to foster both moral education and critical thinking (McCambridge, 2004), where it has affinity with the theory of creativity although the definition of creativity varies. While imagination refers to “the ability to conceive of that which is not” (McCambridge, 2004, p.15), creativity generally means the creation of new ideas from existing concepts (Ray, 2005). Therefore, some policies that I suggest for modifying teaching strategies or curriculum of moral education would try to comprehend the application of creativity into it:

  1. Increase the openness to change – Emerging research in relation to the moral education system from different regions would help to acknowledge their success, identify the existing problems and adapt to a modified system. Aside from this, enriching knowledge from different aspects or cultures can improve educators’ creativity because mental jumping requires the access to abundant information (Strong, n.d.).  Kiva anti-bully program from Finland education would be a good example to learn from.
  2. Stimulate the use of “psychological distance” questions in group discussion – Discussing problem solutions in group provides opportunities for students to access a greater understanding of their peers. The use of psychological distance (Construal-level Theory) is suggested to induce creativity by generating solutions to problems attributing in a long distance or future time to the individual (Kruglanski & Higgins, 2007; Trope, 2010). In other words, the logic force is more likely to detach under those conditions. Some online sources give many interesting sample moral questions (Get to Know U, n.d.); as an example “Would you volunteer to be one of the first colonists on Mars if it meant you could never return to earth?” (related to long distance). Aside from psychological distance, I would suggest to ask more realistic questions such as the here and now in the updated news, so students can apply their moral values practically.
  3. Utilize computer-mediated learning tools as alternative assessment of examination –Sidek and Yunus (2012) indicated that blog has become the most popular among all online tools (i.e. Facebook, Youtube, Twitter, Weibo) to be implemented in classroom. This blog assessment is also found to promote learning autonomy, critical and reflective thinking skills (Yang, 2009). This makes blogging suitable to start in secondary school as young adolescents are more inclined to be concerned with social relationship and seek for peer acceptance in order to fit in groups (Almas, 2009), which actually happened to me when I was a high schooler. Allowing students to explore learning through blogging can also provide teachers a great insight into their diverse opinions and experiences, as well as enhancing teachers’ critical thinking (Deng & Yuen, 2011). Personally, I think its implication can extend to help teachers who have a good psychological base to identify bullies and/or victims among students through reading their blog entries and comments.
  4. Co-operations between schools (as stimulation of a real community) – It is acknowledged that in China, economic inequality is a serious concern (my week 4 blog), individuals from rural areas and cities (different fabrics of society) are not likely to have clear understanding of the similarities and differences of their fellow-citizens due to the “Hukou” household registration system (Afridi, Li & Ren, 2012). I would say that promoting short-term exchange programs (i.e. for one semester) between schools in different regions allow students and educators to experience domestic diversity (especially differences in socio-economic status and education level) and support the integrity of the society (Castania, 1996).

References:

  1. Afridi, F., Li, S. X. & Ren, Y. (2012). Social Identity and Inequality: The Impact of China’s Hukou System. Retrieved from: http://ftp.iza.org/dp6417.pdf.
  2. Almas, A. N. (2009). Adolescents’ Disclosure and Advice-seeking Behavior about Peer Dilemmas: Characteristics, Maternal Parenting Predictors, and Adolescent Social Outcomes. Doctor Thesis: University of Toronto.
  3. Bieg, S., Backes, S. & Mittag, W. (2011). The role of intrinsic motivation for teaching, teachers’ care and autonomy support in students’ self-determined motivation. Journal for Educational Research Online, 3(1), 122-140.
  4. Butler, H. A. (2012). Halpern Critical Thinking Assessment Predicts Real-World Outcomes of Critical Thinking. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 26, 721-729.
  5. Castania, K. (1996). Diversity Fact Sheet #1: What is Diversity?. New York: Cornell University. Retrieved from: http://counties.cce.cornell.edu/chemung/general/publications/what-is-diversity.pdf
  6. Deng, L., & Yuen, A. H. K. (2011). Towards a framework for educational affordances of blogs. Computers & Education, 56(2), 441-451.
  7. Dorn, J. A. (2012). The Rise of Government and the Decline of Morality. Retrieved from: http://www.cato.org/sites/cato.org/files/pubs/pdf/cl-12.pdf
  8. Get To Know U. (n.d.). Life Lessons (30 Moral Quandaries). Retrieved from: http://www.gettoknowu.com/LifeLessons/Hypothetical_Moral_Quandaries.php
  9. Holbrook, T., May, L., Albers, P., Dooley, C. & Flint, A. S. (2012). Teachers as Co-Learners in the Digital Age. Language Arts, 89(4), 219-221.
  10. Kilimci, S. (2009). Teachers’ Perceptions on Corporal Punishment as a Method of Discipline in Elementary Schools. The Journal of International Social Research, 2(8), 242-251.
  11. Kruglanski, A. W. & Higgins, E. T. (2007). Social Psychology Handbook of Basic Principle. New York, U.S.A.: Guilford.
  12. Liang, M. (n.d.). Problems, Causes and Solutions in a School Moral Education Course – Research in a School in Jiangxi. Retrieved from: http://www.ioe.ac.uk/about/documents/About_Overview/Mingyue_L.pdf
  13. McCambridge, T. R. (2004). Imagination, Critical Thinking, and Moral Education as Essential Elements of an Educational Community. Retrieved from: http://www.ierg.net/confs/2004/Proceedings/McCambridge_Thomas.pdf
  14. National Association of School Psychologists. (2006). Position Statement: Corporal punishment. Bethesda, MD: Author.
  15. Oladipo, S. E. (2009). Moral Education of the Child: Whose Responsibility? Journal of Social Science, 20(2), 149-156.
  16. Power, F. C. (2007). Moral Education. U.S.A.: Greenwood Publishing Group.
  17. Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (QCA) (2000). Curriculum guidance for the foundation stage, QCA/DfEE.
  18. Ray, K. (2005). What is Creativity?. Retrieved from: http://www.nyu.edu/cas/ewp/raycreativity05.pdf
  19. Sidek, E. A. R. & Yunus, M. M. (2012). Students’ Experiences on Using Blog as Learning Journals. Social and Behavioral Sciences, 67, 135-143.
  20. Society for Adolescent Medicine, Ad Hoc Corporal Punishment Committee (2003). Corporal punishment in schools: Position Paper of the Society for Adolescent Medicine. Journal of Adolescent Health, 32, 385–393.
  21. Strong, A. B. (n.d.). How Do You Think – Creative or Logical. Retrieved from: http://strong.groups.et.byu.net/pages/articles/articles/creativity.pdf
  22. Trope, Y. (2010). Construal-Level Theory of Psychological Distance. Psychological Review, 117(2), 440-463.
  23. Yang, S. H. (2009). Using Blogs to Enhance Critical Reflection and Community of Practice. Proceedings Ascilite Melbourne 2008: Full Paper. Educational Technology & Society, 12(2), 11-21.
  24. Yannuar, N. (2010). Exploring Learners’ Autonomous Abilities in Blogs Designed for Independent Learning. Malaysian Journal of ELT, Research ISSN: 1511-8002.
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7 thoughts on “Post #7 The Establishment of an Ideal Educational Community: Embedding Moral Education into School

  1. There is much debate when discussing social education such as morals. One of the re-occurring statements is such examples as; ‘it should be the parents job’, and ‘teachers are paid to teach pupils, not raise children’ (Wilce, 2009), it is something that has arisen time & time again throughout my blog when discussing school interventions to social factors such as nurture rooms.
    The purpose of the Education system varies, however its main aim is to educate pupils to become socially equip, and employable (Government, 2013). Arguably this means that without having socially desired morals, you are unlikely to be employable; ultimately concluding that the education system would be failing in their purpose if they did not teach morals.
    When addressing the debate on whether or not the education system should teach morals, or should it be the parents’ responsibility, unfortunately it must be addressed that not all pupils have parents’ who are willing to teach morals. As Propper & Rigg (2007), study suggest parents’ socioeconomic factors contribute towards children’s moral knowledge resulting in bad behaviour. If the education system is not there to intervene and teach morals, who will be? And what would be the result?

    Propper, C., & Rigg, J. (2007). Socio-Economic Status and Child Behaviour: Evidence from a contemporary UK cohort. Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion
    Wilce, H. (2009). Education Quandary: Should schools really teach children moral values, as a new report has said? Or is this a job for their parents?. The independent
    Government (2013). Retrieved from https://hwb.wales.gov.uk/cms/hwbcontent/Shared%20Documents/vtc/2009-10/sociology/j-griffiths/02%20what%20is%20the%20purpose%20of%20education.doc.

  2. I am writing to reply BethanGraceJones’s comment. You made a point that aside from the influences of parents and schools, it is inevitable for other parties to be involved in the moral development. As I have briefly mentioned religion as an example, I would like to elaborate the responsibility of religion in moral education. According to Oladipo (2009), religion plays a role in moral reasoning but its importance cannot be overemphasized. He indicated that the historical context of moral conducts in each society had a heavy base of religions; using Bible teaching as an example that previous moral values were solely central to Judaism. Another example took place in my secondary school which is a Christian-based school, and it advocates a belief to students that homosexuality is not allowed in this religion; whereas it happened that one of my peers who has homosexual orientation was being isolated and bullied. In other words, it shows that religion transmitted certain values to children and it may become mental and physical harm to certain individuals.

    Reference:
    Oladipo, S. E. (2009). Moral Education of the Child: Whole Responsibility?. Journal of Social Sciences, 20(2), 149-156.

  3. One of the aspects you highlighted within your writing, is that of improving imagination. However, the development of imagination or creativity within the educational system in the UK has been criticized. Some go as far to say that the educational system is ‘killing creativity’ (Robinson, 2011).

    A large part of this is related to the importance given to grades (as highlighted in Hannah’s blog). Research has shown that once teachers receive external pressures, they change their teaching style to make a more restrictive classroom environment (Pelletier, 2002). Both the teachers and students become extrinsically motivated, as autonomy and self-determination are no longer important – only the ‘right’ answer is. When exams are treated as ‘high-stakes’, the stress levels of the teachers and student increase. Perhaps more importantly, the number of meaningful interactions between students and teachers decrease (Barkesdale-Ladd & Thomas, 2000). Students get a worse education and everyone in the process gets more stressed as a result.

    When a piece of work is given a grade, suddenly the thought process, effort or the individuality behind a piece of work no longer matters. What matter is, was it ‘right’? And, how did it do compared with everyone else?

    —-
    Barksdale-Ladd, M. A., & Thomas, K. F. (2000). What’s at Stake in High-Stakes Testing Teachers and Parents Speak Out. Journal of Teacher Education, 51(5), 384-397.
    http://hannahrettie.wordpress.com/
    Pelletier, L. G., Séguin-Lévesque, C., & Legault, L. (2002). Pressure from above and pressure from below as determinants of teachers’ motivation and teaching behaviors. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94(1), 186.
    Robinson, K. (2011). Out of our minds: Learning to be creative. Capstone.

  4. I think it is up to parents and teachers to teach children morals. Parents should just do that by bringing their children up properly, teaching them to respect other people, and to also use manners, this behaviour should be reinforced by teachers who will teach them the appropriate way to behave in an academic setting, as they progress through school, primary -> highschool -> college -> further education, the classroom values will change slightly, but all in all they remain the same. The classroom principles are basically to respect other people and also to respect the educator.

    People believe that this is either fully up to the parents or fully up to the teachers, in reality it is a combination of both, but I believe that more emphasis should be placed on the parents as opposed to the teachers. Teachers, as mentioned above, are there to teach children, not raise them. This means that although they ready them for employment, at the end of the day they are not the responsibility of the teacher. Once that student leaves the school they are not the teacher’s responsibility any more. It is the parents who are meant to shape the student’s morals and then it is the job of the teacher to make them employable and to help them apply these morals to real life situations.

  5. I am writing to reply louisenichols’s comment. I cannot deny that I miss the grading issue which would potentially hinder the development of critical thinking and creativity. Here I would like to add on to the teaching strategy I proposed in my blog. As I have stated that arousing students’ affective need is the crucial step to success of value transmission in moral education. Although implementation of blog is popular among higher education as an assessment method (i.e. our science of education module), its use is not yet developed in secondary school. Assuming that I am a secondary school, and I am told to write weekly blog on any topics related to moral values, which would be the only assessment and are graded. I would definitely panic, so here I would suggest a mix application of group discussion, weekly quiz and fortnight blogs as the best teaching strategy. While small group learning is found to induce cooperative learning (Johnson & Johnson, 2002), weekly quiz (examination) keeps the extrinsic motivation of students (Assessment Reform Group, 2002); whereas blogs can foster their autonomy and critical thinking skills (Yang, 2009).

    References:
    1. Assessment Reform Group, (2002). Testing, Motivation and Learning. Retrieved from: http://arrts.gtcni.org.uk/gtcni/bitstream/2428/4624/1/Testing,%20Motivation%20and%20Learning.pdf
    2. Johnson, D. & Johnson, R. (2002). Learning together and alone: overview and meta-analysis. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 22, 95-105.
    3. Yang, S. H. (2009). Using Blogs to Enhance Critical Reflection and Community of Practice. Proceedings Ascilite Melbourne 2008: Full Paper. Educational Technology & Society, 12(2), 11-21.

  6. According to Thornberg(2009), the moral language of “nice” and “mean” that pupils and teachers use in their day-to-day work with rules in class as well as in the playground stretch the distinctions between the two pupil constructions, the benevolent fellow buddy and the well-behaved pupil, because of the dual meanings of “nice” and “mean” in the moral discourse of everyday school life. To be nice is not only about fulfilling the role of the benevolent fellow buddy and following relational rules. To be nice is also about fulfilling the role of the well-behaved pupil and following all the school rules. If a pupil breaks relational rules in a way that other pupils perceive as frequent, he or she risks being defined as “mean” in other pupils’ view, as the above statement illustrates. However, if a pupil often transgresses all kinds of rules in school and in class – especially the structuring rules of classroom – he or she risks attracting teacher disapproval, mediated through negative cues, comments or corrections (for example, a telling-off, stern gazes, angry face expression and negative verbal judgements). In this way, the pupil can be constructed and defined as a pupil who is not nice but mean.

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